A sore throat is a common occurrence. Most often, it is easily and well treated by primary care physicians and by ENT doctors. Sometimes, pain is present for reasons other than infection. And other times, infection is present but has become more difficult to treat. Otolaryngologists have expertise in differentiating causes of throat pain and in managing both common and uncommon causes. Patients are evaluated through a thorough physical exam, and occasionally via endoscopic exam of the throat and imaging studies such as CT or ultrasound. Great care is taken in limiting uncomfortable exams and unneeded CT scans in children. Most often a resolution is obtained through the use of medicines. In rare cases, brief procedures performed in the office or in the operating room are required.